Continuous delivery for WordPress using Bitbucket Pipelines
I look after a team of developers who all follow the practice of continuous delivery. I thought it was about time I applied the same principles to my own site but I wanted to do it for free.
Continuous delivery aims to automate the testing and release process so you can deploy new code with a click of a button.
My repository (repo) is then backed up in the cloud using Atlassian’s Bitbucket which is also free for small teams. So far, so good.
Now here comes the problem. To deploy code I would have to manually move files via SFTP (a secure version of FTP) from my local version of the site, to staging and finally to production. This process was slow, prone to errors and had no version control.
- all main branch commits to automatically update my staging website
- all deployments to be versioned
- the ability to roll back to a previous version
- to manually trigger a deploy to production with one click.
To achieve these goals I used Bitbucket Pipelines, another Atlassian product which will automatically deploy and test a website.
For my setup I decided to use Pipelines to only update my WordPress Theme and to upload files via SFTP but you could use FTP.
For this setup you need to be using Bitbucket and to enable Pipelines.
To enable Pipelines go to your repository settings and then select Pipelines settings.
Toggle the switch to enable Pipelines. Before you configure your bitbucket-pipelines.yml file you need to set up some environment variables which I’ll explain next.
To setup your environment variables go to:
- ‘Settings’ (within your Bitbucket repository)
- Selecting Pipelines ‘Environment variables’.
I created two variables:
The variables are the username and password required to access my site via SFTP. If you don’t know the password and username just ask your web host.
The variables have to be all one word but you can call them anything you want.
Bitbucket Pipelines runs your builds in Docker containers. These containers run a Docker image that defines the build environment. You can use the default image provided by Bitbucket or get a custom one.
To create your Docker container you need to create a bitbucket-pipelines.yml file. Go to your repositories settings and then your Pipeline settings and click the button ‘Configure bitbucket-pipelines.yml’. I selected the language as PHP and replaced the template with the following.
image: php:5.6.31 pipelines: default: - step: script: - apt-get update - apt-get -qq install git-ftp - git ftp init --user $SFTP_username --passwd $SFTP_password sftp://ftp.yourdomain.com/staging/wp-content/themes/themelocation/
This updated .yml file basically tells Bitbucket to take the main branch of the repository and copy all the files to the sftp:// URL.
The line ‘image: php:5.6.31’ is the to Docker container. The image version I’m using relates to the PHP version of my WordPress.
The next two lines instal git-ftp. This keeps track of the uploaded files by storing the commit id in a log file on the server. It uses Git to determine which local files have changed.
- apt-get update - apt-get -qq install git-ftp
The last line is the most important. It references the environment variables we created earlier. It also has the URL of where to sync our repository files.
- git ftp init --user $SFTP_username --passwd $SFTP_password sftp://ftp.yourdomain.com/staging/wp-content/themes/themelocation/
In my case I only want to use Git to update my WordPress Theme. You should replace the sftp:// URL with the location where your repository needs to sync. If you can’t use sftp you can use ftp.
Git-ftp init copies all the files in your repo to the URL destination using the username and password within your environment variable.
Note: If you already have the files on your site you need to change ‘init’ to ‘catchup’. Catchup assumes your site has the latest files.
After your first successful pipeline build change the word ‘init’ (or ‘catchup’) to ‘push’. Push will then only update the files that have changed from your repo.
This change makes any commits pushed to the main branch go live automatically. For me this meant my staging site would automatically update whenever I committed any files from my local site.
image: php:5.6.31 pipelines: default: - step: script: - apt-get update - apt-get -qq install git-ftp - git ftp push --user $SFTP_username --passwd $SFTP_password sftp://ftp.yourdomain.com/staging/wp-content/themes/themelocation/
Manually trigger a deploy
The next step for me was to add my production site to Pipelines. Instead of automatically pushing code this would be manually triggered.
To do this I added another section called ‘custom’ to my .yml file (see below). Custom will only trigger manually.
Under ‘Custom’ I created a section called ‘deployment-to-prod’ but you could call it anything. I then copied the same info as in ‘default’ but updated the URL to point to my production site.
The first time you do this you have to make sure you have set it to ‘init’ (just like above) but keep the ‘default’ section set to push as you’ve already initialised (init) it.
image: php:5.6.31 pipelines: default: # Pipelines triggered automatically - step: script: - apt-get update - apt-get -qq install git-ftp - git ftp push --user $SFTP_username --passwd $SFTP_password sftp://ftp.yourdomain.com/staging/wp-content/themes/themelocation/ custom: # Pipelines triggered manually deployment-to-prod: - step: script: - apt-get update - apt-get -qq install git-ftp - git ftp init --user $SFTP_username --passwd $SFTP_password sftp://ftp.yourdomain.com/production/wp-content/themes/themelocation/
Once you have a successful pipeline build change ‘init’ to ‘push’ and then commit the pipeline again.
Now you’ve set up your pipeline every time you commit and push code to your Bitbucket repository, your staging site will automatically update, however your production will require you to manually trigger the deploy.
To manually trigger your deploy on production:
- go to your Bitbucket repository
- Select ‘Branches’
- On the master branch line click the three little dots ‘…’
- Select ‘Run pipeline for a branch’
Once selected you will get the custom pipeline we created called ‘deployment-to-prod’. Click ‘Run’ to start the deployment.
You should now have a fully functioning pipeline with proper versioning allowing you to rollback any change.
Having Bitbucket Pipelines is great, even for this simple example. I can now easily deploy code from local, staging and to production with very little effort, and at the same time everything is version controlled.
The only downside is you only get 50 free minutes a month to deploy your code.
Each deploy lasted around 30 – 60 seconds which means I could do around 30 commits a month. I think for most hobby sites this is probably fine.
Next I’m going to see if I can introduce some testing with each commit such as unit tests or some automated tests with Selenium.